Computer technology significantly modifies the process of information transfer.
The results of the negative impact of impaired visual functions on the development and manifestations of the psyche of the blind and visually impaired are both quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative changes take place mainly in the field of sensory cognition: the blind and partially sighted significantly reduce or completely lose visual sensations and perceptions, respectively, reduces the number of ideas, reduces the ability to form images of fantasy, and so on.
As for the qualitative features of the psyche of persons with visual impairments, they are found in almost all areas of mental activity:
the system of interaction of analyzers, types of perception changes, there are certain specific features in processes of formation of images and concepts, the parity of sensory and conceptual in activity of thinking is broken, some changes in emotional and volitional sphere and properties of the person are observed, full or partial infringement of visual functions development, which is due to the violation of spatial orientation and the resulting restriction of the blind in freedom of movement.
Sedentary lifestyle in turn causes muscle lethargy, skeletal deformity, hypofunction of internal organs, etc. Any defect, physical or mental defect, the result of which is a violation of normal development, inevitably leads to the automatic inclusion of biological compensatory functions of the body. In this sense, compensation can be defined as the universal ability of the body to some extent to compensate for the violation or loss of certain functions.
At the heart of the complex mechanism of compensation is the restructuring of body functions, regulated by higher nervous activity. This restructuring is to restore or replace damaged or lost functions, regardless of whether a part of the body is damaged.
The more severe the defect, the more body systems are involved in the compensation process. The most complex functional changes are observed in disorders of the central nervous system, including analyzers. Thus, the degree of complexity of the mechanisms of compensatory phenomena depends on the severity of the defect.
Zemtsov M. Ways to compensate for blindness in the process of cognitive 123helpme.me and employment. – Moscow: Publishing House of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR, 1965. Zhikharev AM Educational work in a boarding school for blind children: A book for educators (From work experience). – M.: Enlightenment, 1984. Ermakov VP, Yakunin GA Fundamentals of typhlopedagogy: Development, training and education of children with visual impairments: Textbook. manual for students. higher studies, institutions. – M.: Humanit. ed. VLADOS Center, 2000 .– 240 pp. Solntseva LI Modern typhlopedagogy and typhlopsychology in the system of education of children with visual impairments. – M., 1999. Litvak AG, Sorokin VM Golovina TP Workshop on typhlopsychology. – M .: Enlightenment, 1964.
Psychological features of the educational process in students with profound visual impairments. Abstract
Training of visually impaired people has its own specifics
Since there are not enough textbooks printed in embossed font, the theoretical classes focus on the explanation of the material by the teacher, its discussion and fixation by students. Those who have a Braille system make notes in notebooks, others record material on a dictaphone. Phantoms, three-dimensional models, convex tablets are used in practical classes, which allows blind students to “see” with their hands.
For independent work, blind students use specialized libraries for the blind, where they can get textbooks and other necessary books printed in Braille or recorded on tape for listening to a tape recorder. In the absence of such sources of information, blind students for several decades independently hired readers to organize the audio recording. On the basis of audio recordings obtained in lectures or self-recorded, abstracts are made in Braille, which help in specific preparation for seminars, tests and exams.
Recently, computer technology has begun to play a leading role in the independent work of blind students. Personal computers are equipped with programs for reading text files through speech synthesis, which functionally replaces the tape recorder and audio recordings and opens up fundamentally new possibilities for information processing. The source of this information is the technology of scanning flat-printed texts with the subsequent recognition of the obtained images, obtaining electronic texts from the Internet or from a collection of text files offered on the market on CDs. Computer technology significantly modifies the process of information transfer. If previously a blind student had to print texts or dictate them to the driver, now he has the opportunity in similar conditions to other students to prepare an electronic version of the text and print it on a printer.
The specificity of receiving processing and transmission of information gives rise to the peculiarities of mental processes that blind students have in their studies. Complete or partial lack of vision leads to a compensatory effect primarily on the auditory analyzer, as well as fingers as organs of touch. This compensatory action makes blind students more attentive both when listening to lectures or audio recordings, and when reading special books. It is safe to say that a blind person perceives and remembers much more information by ear than his sighted counterpart.
The following principle works: the poorer the sources of information, the more effective its assimilation. Colleagues of blind students are often surprised by their ability to memorize the information obtained in lectures, but they do not think about what achieves this effect.
However, it should be borne in mind that the use of compensatory capabilities of the body means obtaining the desired result through the use of greater physiological and mental reserves, namely: processing of hearing information costs much more bioenergy costs than similar processing of visual information. In other words, the replacement of the source of information, which was obtained from 80% to 90% of its volume increases the load on the auditory and tactile analyzers in 4 – 10 times.
Thus, the educational process of blind students has significant differences not only in the form of technical support and practical implementation, but also in the features of mental processes that occur both on the conscious and subconscious levels of these persons. Moreover, the compensatory nature of these processes and the associated additional loads raise questions about their adequacy to the requirements of health, safety of mental work and the formation of specific forms of scientific organization and work.
In particular, the fact that excessive use of the hearing aid in the assimilation of complex auditory information requires a significant increase in the rate of psychophysiological reactions and biochemical processes underlying them is underestimated. In this way, a high level of excitation of the cerebral cortex and the corresponding efficiency of the process of assimilation of information is achieved. However, you have to pay for such reactivity, and after one or two hours of intensive listening there is an involuntary process of inhibition of mental reactions, the suspension of which requires additional motivational stimuli.
For most blind students, a significant motivation is to achieve greater academic success compared to sighted colleagues. This, of course, helps them to maintain a high level of, but does not cancel the objective laws of nature, according to which fatigue gradually accumulates and the processes of inhibition begin to dominate the processes of excitation.
An important role in the unloading of the auditory analyzer is played by the use of Braille as a form of information transmission through special books or technical means. Today, such hardware is a peripheral device that in Braille codes on special tactile displays duplicate information from a computer monitor.
The effective use of tactile displays, in turn, requires a significant development of finger sensitivity, which is mostly available at an early age, and is extremely problematic for people who have become blind adults. However, the sensitivity of the fingers is not the main problem with the use of tactile displays: the extremely high cost of these devices is much more complicated. In most cases, blind students do not study in separate teams but in higher education institutions of general access, ie together with sighted students. Thus, they enter into relationships with other students as members of the team, which creates certain features of the educational process and the development of the psyche of blind students.
Psychological adaptation in joint learning is very fast. Students, even with severe disabilities, are confident in the student environment, participate in all student activities, set high-level career goals.
Visually impaired students, despite major health problems, cope with complex curricula. Among visually impaired students are socially active individuals with clearly defined leadership qualities. Many students make a significant contribution to the development of an affordable education program.
Creating favorable conditions for vocational education for the blind is complex and multifaceted, and at present it is extremely difficult for a visually impaired student to go all the way on their own and all organizations and structures involved in the lives of people with disabilities need to work together.
Zemtsov M. Ways to compensate for blindness in the process of cognitive and employment. – Moscow: Publishing House of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR, 1965. Zhikharev AM Educational work in a boarding school for blind children: A book for educators (From work experience). – M.: Enlightenment, 1984. Ermakov VP, Yakunin GA Fundamentals of typhlopedagogy: Development, training and education of children with visual impairments: Textbook. manual for students. higher studies, institutions. – M.: Humanit. ed. VLADOS Center, 2000 .– 240 pp. Solntseva LI Modern typhlopedagogy and typhlopsychology in the system of education of children with visual impairments.